Nancy Kim

Professor of Law, Michael Paul Galvin Chair in Entrepreneurship and Applied Legal Technology

Nancy S. Kim is the inaugural Michael Paul Galvin Chair in Entrepreneurship and Applied Legal Technology.  Professor Kim's scholarship focuses on consent, contracts, privacy, and the effect of technology on society, and she has written dozens of scholarly articles and essays on these subjects.  She is also the author of the books, Consentability: Consent and Its Limits (Cambridge University Press, 2019); The Fundamentals of Contract Law and Clauses (Edward Elgar, 2016); and Wrap Contracts:  Foundations and Ramifications (Oxford University Press, 2013).  Her work has been the subject of several symposia and conference panels, including a special issue of the Southwestern Law Review (Vol. 44, No. 2, Spring 2014), and a symposium issue of the Loyola Law Review (vol 66, No. 1, Spring 2020).  Professor Kim’s scholarship has been cited by federal courts and in legal treatises, and she is a frequently quoted in the media, including the New York Times, NPR, the Los Angeles Times, and Popular Mechanics.

Professor Kim received her J.D. degree from the UC Berkeley School of Law where she was an associate editor of the California Law Review, and her LL.M. degree from the UCLA School of Law where she was a Ford Foundation Fellow. Kim was also a Women’s Law and Public Policy Fellow at Georgetown University Law Center.  She graduated Phi Beta Kappa from UC Berkeley with a B.A. in Rhetoric and a minor in French.

After law school, Professor Kim worked in the business and legal departments of several Silicon Valley based technology companies, including as Vice President of Business and Legal Affairs of a global software and services company. She was also an associate in the corporate law departments at Heller, Ehrman in San Francisco and Gunderson, Dettmer in Menlo Park.  

Prior to joining the Chicago-Kent faculty, Kim was the Proflowers Distinguished Professor of Internet Studies and Professor of Law at California Western School of Law and a visiting professor at the Rady School of Management, UC San Diego.  She has also visited at The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law and Victoria University School of Law, Wellington, New Zealand.  Nancy Kim is an elected member of the American Law Institute, former Chair of both the Association of American Law Schools Section on Contracts and the Section on Commercial and Related Consumer Law, and former Chair of the ABA Subcommittee on Commercial and Consumer Contracts. She is a member of the Permanent Editorial Board of the Uniform Commercial Code.  Kim is a licensed attorney with the State Bar of California and the author of two novels.  She is a past recipient of the California State Bar’s Wiley M. Manuel Award for pro bono services for her work with the Asian Pacific American Legal Center.


LL.M., University of California, Los Angeles

J.D., University of California, Berkeley School of Law

B.A., University of California, Berkeley




A Taxonomy of Adhesive Terms53 SETON HALL LAW REVIEW (2022) 

Beyond Section 230 Liability for FacebookST. JOHN’S LAW REVIEW (2022)

Developments in Digital “Wrap” Contracts77 THE BUSINESS LAWYER 275 (Winter 2021-2022)

Ideology, Coercion, and the Proposed Restatement of Consumer Contracts32 LOYOLA CONSUMER L. REV. 456 (2020)

New Developments in Digital and Wrap Contracts71 THE BUSINESS LAWYER 349 (Winter 2020-2021)

Revisiting the License v. Sale Conundrum54 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES LAW REVIEW 101 (2020).

Author Response:  What Does it Mean to Consent? 66 LOYOLA L. REV. 145 (2020)

New Developments in Digital and Wrap Contracts (2019-2020), THE BUSINESS LAWYER, Vol. 75, (Winter 2019-2020)

The Faulty Foundation of the Draft Restatement of Consumer Contracts(co-authored with Adam J. Levitin, Christina L. Kunz, Peter Linzer, Patricia McCoy, Juliet M. Moringiello, Elizabeth Renuart and Lauren Willis), 36 YALE J. REG. 447 (2019)

In Re Marriage of Witten:  Subordinating Contracts to ‘Public Policy45 FLA. ST. L. REV. 996 (2018) (part of anthology of best and worst contract decisions).

Relative Consent and Contract Law18 NEV. L. J. 165 (2017)

Online Contracting:  New DevelopmentsTHE BUSINESS LAWYER, Vol. 72, (Winter 2016-2017)

Internet Giants as Quasi-Governmental Entities and the Limits of Contractual Consent (with D.A. Jeremy Telman), 80 MO. L. REV. 723 (2015)

Situational Duress and the Aberrance of Electronic Contracts89 CHI-KENT L. REV. 265 (2014)

Website Design and Liability, 52 JURIMETRICS 383 (Summer 2012)

Contract’s Adaptation and the Online Bargain79 U. CIN. L. REV. 1327 (2011)

Reasonable Expectations in Socio-Cultural Context45 WAKE FOREST L. REV. 641 (2010)

Expanding the Scope of the Principles of the Law of Software Contracts to Include Digital Content84 TUL. L. REV. 1595 (2010)

Website Proprietorship and Online Harassment2009 UTAH L. REV. 993

Imposing Tort Liability on Websites for Cyber Harassment118 YALE L. J. POCKET PART 115 (2008)

The Software Licensing Dilemma, 2008 BYU L. REV. 1103

Mistakes, Changed Circumstances and Intent, 56 U. KAN. L. REV. 473 (2008) 



DEATH BY A THOUSAND CLICKS (under contract with Cambridge University Press).

THE CAMBRIDGE HANDBOOK ON EMERGING ISSUES AT THE INTERSECTION OF COMMERCIAL LAW AND TECHNOLOGY (co-edited with Prof. Stacy-Ann Elvy) (under contract with Cambridge University Press).

CONSENTABILITY:  CONSENT AND ITS LIMITS (Cambridge University Press, 2019).



Book Chapters

Wrap Contracting and the Online Environment:  Causes and Curesin RESEARCH HANDBOOK ON ELECTRONIC COMMERCE LAW (ed. John A. Rothchild) (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016)

The Duty to Draft Reasonably and Online Contractsin COMMERCIAL CONTRACT LAW:  A TRANSATLANTIC PERSPECTIVE (eds. Larry DiMatteo, Keith Rowley, Severine Saintier, and George Zhou) (Cambridge University Press, 2013)

Selected Media Appearances

Axios, Jacob Knutsen, 23andMe changes terms of service to prevent lawsuits after data breach, (December 7, 2023); 23andMe changes terms of service to prevent lawsuits after data breach

Op-Ed: Biden's executive order on AI is ambitious—and Incomplete, LOS ANGELES TIMES, (November 17, 2023); Op-Ed: Biden's executive order on AI is ambitious—and Incomplete

Planet Money/NPR, Emma Peaslee, Jeff Guo, and Jess Jiang, and James Sneed, Surprise, you just signed a contract!  How hidden contracts took over the internet, (July 14, 2023); Surprise, you just signed a contract!  How hidden contracts took over the internet

Regulate social media?  California still has a plan for that, LOS ANGELES TIMES, (August 25, 2022); Op-Ed: Regulate social media? California still has a plan for that - Los Angeles Times (

Op-Ed: How Facebook can be held accountable:  Web platforms should be liable for harmful products, LOS ANGELES TIMES, (November 13, 2021); https:  Op-Ed: Think Facebook is invincible? Here's how the social media giant can be held accountable - Los Angeles Times (

WGN9, Kristina Miller, What you need to know about the IRS facial scan requirement, (Feb. 3, 2022); What you need to know about the IRS facial scan requirement | WGN-TV (

Esquire, Justin Kirkland, Do You Know What You Sign Away When You Click ‘I Agree’?, (Jan. 28, 2022); Do You Know What You Sign Away When You Click 'I Agree'? (

The New York Times, The Editorial Board, What Happens When You Click ‘Agree’?, (Jan. 23, 2021); Opinion | With Online Terms of Service, What Happens When You Click 'Agree'? - The New York Times (

NPR/WBUR program Here & Now,  How Companies Can Invoke Force Majeure in a Pandemic, interview with Robin Young; (May 6, 2020);

Marketplace Tech/NPR, interview with Molly Wood, We Might Not See the Effects of the Equifax Breach for Years, (Sept. 20, 2017);

NBC San DiegoNew Law Protects Online Reviewers (Sept. 11, 2014);

NPR/WBUR program Here & NowWhat Are You Agreeing To In Online Contracts? interview with Jeremy Hobson (August 6, 2014);

NBC San DiegoThe Truth Behind Hidden Contracts (July 16, 2014); 

Media Appearances

23andMe's Change in Terms of Service Likely Won't Shield It From Fallout, Says Chicago-Kent Professor Nancy Kim

Nancy Kim, a Chicago-Kent College of Law professor who is an expert in online contracts, said if 23andMe was attempting to shield itself from fallout from the data breach, it's unlikely that most courts would uphold such an effort. Kim said updating terms is usually perfectly legal if consumers are given reasonable notice and the option to opt-out. But, she added, 23andMe will likely struggle to prove it provided both to its customers.


Law Professor Nancy Kim: Biden’s Executive Order on AI Is Ambitious — and Incomplete

Last month President Biden issued an executive order on artificial intelligence, the government’s most ambitious attempt yet to set ground rules for this technology. The order focuses on establishing best practices and standards for AI models, seeking to constrain Silicon Valley’s propensity to release products before they’ve been fully tested — to “move fast and break things.” But despite the order’s scope — it’s 111 pages and covers a range of issues including industry standards and civil rights — two glaring omissions may undermine its promise.

Los Angeles Times